ChatSim (India) – A SIM just For Chatting Worldwide

What’s ChatSim?

ChatSim is the world’s first SIM card that lets you connect your ChatApps wherever you are. For just ₹1100 a year you can send unlimited text messages and emoji with WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, WeChat, LINE, Telegram and many other Instant Messaging apps. Thanks to ChatSim you can keep in touch with family, friends and colleagues. Plus another 3 billion people around the world.

No more roaming costs

If you are traveling around the world, you’ll never have to worry again about roaming costs. Live every moment to the fullest and exchange unlimited text messages and emoji with everyone.

The Technology

ChatSim cuts unwanted data traffic by 90% and guarantees extraordinary speed on 3G and 4G networks because it always connects to the operator with the best coverage.



The Technology

ChatSim cuts unwanted data traffic by 90% and guarantees extraordinary speed on 3G and 4G networks because it always connects to the operator with the best coverage.

For me, you and everyone

ChatSim is designed not just for travelers: it is really useful in countless situations. Purchase the Sim and start chatting. We are waiting for you.



ChatSim World





Our base plan costs just ₹1100 a year and includes unlimited text message and emoji anywhere in the world. Do you want to share photos and videos and make voice calls too? Purchase a multimedia recharge now.


Compatible Apps

Wherever you are, ChatSim lets you keep in touch with your friends always. Insert the card in your smartphone and start chatting with the world’s most popular messaging apps: Whatsapp, Messenger, QQ International, WeChat, LINE, Telegram, BBM, Hike and Kakao.

Nokia is Back in 2016 with Android

Nokia’s return to the smartphone battle has already been set to come. Although most of this Finnish technology company was sold to Microsoft in a multi-million dollar deal which completed last year, there are still parts belong to the long-standing brand. In the Nokia’s return, the Giant will be focusing on designing and licensing only.



Last month, on May 12, 2015, Nokia just celebrated their 150th anniversary, making it one of the longest-life smartphone manufacturers in the world. One month later, we have their Nokia CEO announced with the press about a promising coming back: Nokia’s return to the smartphone market with Nokia Android!! Isn’t it just exciting and worth waiting for the Nokia Comeback in 2016?

Recently, even before the news of Nokia’s return was revealed, there have been leaking rumors about an amazing Nokia Power Ranger concept. The device is spotted with 512GB and Dual-Boot, which has drawn attention of huge amount of users worldwide. Now, together with the returning of the Giant, we have all the proof to hope that the dream device will come true soon. It’s been really long since we last heard the name Nokia in smartphone retailers and showroom. Hope the Finnish Giant will bring out something extraordinary like the long awaited Nokia C1 Android Smartphone!

Nokia Android

Nokia Android

They are thinking of partnering with some different third parties to provide Nokia’s design and let those companies manufacture and launch final products, said CEO Rajeev Suri to German Publication, the “Manager Magazin”, when announcing Nokia’s return. Under an agreement with Microsoft, Nokia is not allowed to use its brand on phones until Q4 of 2016. So if everything goes right, the world-famous Nokia will come back to the smartphone market in 2016. “We will look for suitable partners,” says Suri. “Microsoft makes mobile phones. We would simply design them and then make the brand name available to license.”


The Li-Fi Technology | A Step Towards Future

LiFi is a wireless optical networking technology that uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for data transmission.

LiFi is designed to use LED light bulbs similar to those currently in use in many energy-conscious homes and offices. However, LiFi bulbs are outfitted with a chip that modulates the light imperceptibly for optical data transmission. LiFi data is transmitted by the LED bulbs and received by photoreceptors.

Step aside, Wi-Fi. Scientists have just taken to the streets with a new wireless technology called Li-Fi, and it’s 100 times faster than current speeds.
Li-Fi transmits data using visible light communication, and it’s now being tested in offices and industrial environments in Tallinn, Estonia.
This new wireless system hit speeds of 224 gigabits per second in the lab, and has the potential to revolutionize internet usage.

what is li-fi

how li-fi works

LiFi’s early developmental models were capable of 150 megabits-per-second (Mbps). Some commercial kits enabling that speed have been released. In the lab, with stronger LEDs and different technology, researchers have enabled 10 gigabits-per-second (Gbps), which is faster than 802.11ad.

Benefits of LiFi:

Higher speeds than Wi-Fi.
10000 times the frequency spectrum of radio.
More secure because data cannot be intercepted without a clear line of sight.
Prevents piggybacking.
Eliminates neighboring network interference.
Unimpeded by radio interference.

what is li-fi

what is li-fi

Does not create interference in sensitive electronics, making it better for use in environments like hospitals and aircraft.
By using LiFi in all the lights in and around a building, the technology could enable greater area of coverage than a single WiFi router. Drawbacks to the technology include the need for a clear line of sight, difficulties with mobility and the requirement that lights stay on for operation.


Like Wi-Fi, LiFi is wireless and uses similar 802.11 protocols; but it uses visible light communication (instead of radio frequency waves), which has much wider bandwidth.

One part of VLC is modeled after communication protocols established by the IEEE 802 workgroup. However, the IEEE 802.15.7 standard is out-of-date, it fails to consider the latest technological developments in the field of optical wireless communications, specifically with the introduction of optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (O-OFDM) modulation methods which have been optimized for data rates, multiple-access and energy efficiency.The introduction of O-OFDM means that a new drive for standardization of optical wireless communications is required.

Nonetheless, the IEEE 802.15.7 standard defines the physical layer (PHY) and media access control (MAC) layer. The standard is able to deliver enough data rates to transmit audio, video and multimedia services. It takes into account optical transmission mobility, its compatibility with artificial lighting present in infrastructures, and the interference which may be generated by ambient lighting. The MAC layer permits using the link with the other layers as with the TCP/IP protocol.

The standard defines three PHY layers with different rates:

  • The PHY I was established for outdoor application and works from 11.67 kbit/s to 267.6 kbit/s.
  • The PHY II layer permits reaching data rates from 1.25 Mbit/s to 96 Mbit/s.
  • The PHY III is used for many emissions sources with a particular modulation method called color shift keying (CSK). PHY III can deliver rates from 12 Mbit/s to 96 Mbit/s.

The modulation formats recognized for PHY I and PHY II are on-off keying (OOK) and variable pulse position modulation (VPPM). The Manchester coding used for the PHY I and PHY II layers includes the clock inside the transmitted data by representing a logic 0 with an OOK symbol “01” and a logic 1 with an OOK symbol “10”, all with a DC component. The DC component avoids light extinction in case of an extended run of logic 0’s.



The future internet

Li-Fi technology will in future enable faster, more reliable internet connections, even when the demand for data usage has outgrown the available supply from existing technologies such as 4G, LTE and Wi-Fi. It will not replace these technologies, but will work seamlessly alongside them.

Using light to deliver wireless internet will also allow connectivity in environments that do not currently readily support Wi-Fi, such as aircraft cabins, hospitals and hazardous environments.

Light is already used for data transmission in fibre-optic cables and for point to point links, but Li-Fi is a special and novel combination of technologies that allow it to be universally adopted for mobile ultra high speed internet communications.

A dual use for LED lighting

The wide use of solid state lighting offers an opportunity for efficient dual use lighting and communication systems.

Innovation in LED and photon receiver technology has ensured the availability of suitable light transmitters and detectors, while advances in the modulation of communication signals for these types of components has been advanced through signal processing techniques, such as multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO), to become as sophisticated as those used in mobile telecommunications.

An integrated communication solution

Li-Fi technology is being developed into a ubiquitous systems technology, consisting of application specific combinations of light transmitters, light receivers including solar cells, efficient computational algorithms and networking capabilities that can be deployed in a wide range of communication scenarios and in a variety of device platforms.

Z+ Plus Security In India

The  category of security given  to an individual is under the  discretion  of the home ministry. The  threat perception is taken into  account  based on inputs given by the  Intelligence Bureau. The home ministry  analyze the degree of security threat and allot the category of the  security. The different levels of security category in the order of  precedence are

  • Z+ category has a security cover of 36 personnel
  • Z category has a security cover of 22 personnel
  • Y category has a security cover of 11 personnel
  • X category has a security cover of 2 personnel

The  Z+ security is provided by the National Security Guard (NSG). They are  armed with sophisticated MP5 guns and modern communication gadgets and each member of the team are adept in martial arts and  unarmed combat  skills. Under Z-plus security, an individual gets round-the-clock protection from 36 armed personnel.

z Plus Security

Mr. Narendra Modi with NSG Commandos under Z+ Category, when Chief Minister of Gujarat.

Notable Persons Under Z+ Category
1) Amith Shah
2) LK Advani
3) Mamata Banerji
4) Mulayam Singh Yadav
5) Akhilesh Singh Yadav
6) Mayawati
7) Lalu Prasad Yadav

Security of Prime Minister, Former Prime Ministers and Immediate Relatives of Them

Their security falls under the SPG(Special protection Group) category.Security of Prime minster and his immediate relatives comes under SPG  category regardless of security threat. The Strength of security detail in SPG category is Classified.

The SPG security is also given to former Prime Ministers and their immediate relatives (which include spouse, children and parents) for a  period of 10 years from the date on which the former Prime Minister   ceased to hold office.

z Plus Security

Time & Protocol Issues

Under normal circumstances, if the protectee has to visit someone, he informs the PSO (Personal Security Officer) regarding the visit. The PSO is usually the person closest to the protectee and rides shotgun in his car. He asks for a 30 min. period for reconnaissance & planning and is usually granted that time. One primary route and 2 alternates ones are prepared, to be used in case of emergency. The PSO calls up local authorities (civilian police) in that area and asks them for ROPs (Road Opening Party). These advance teams sweep the routes beforehand and clear traffic congestions, road blocks etc. A patrolman is placed at each intersection so as to stop the traffic when the convoy arrives. He is on the same frequency as the pilot vehicle leading the convoy. Only when this is completed, does the VIP leave his house. This protocol is usually adhered to in most situations, broken only in the extreme case of an emergency. The pilot and the tail vehicle usually belong to the local police and provide tactical support within their jurisdiction. They are changed whenever their jurisdiction changes. This change, if you ever see it happening, is executed with clockwork precision. The convoy moves along normally. The new pilot comes alongside the convoy, speeds up, changes lanes & takes lead. The old pilot takes a left lane & exits the road. The new tail moves alongside the older one in a parallel lane. As soon as a median is encountered, the old tail takes a U-Turn and the new tail joins in. This maneuver is executed at more than 50 kph usually.

You might have seen big red flags on the lead and tail vehicle. These flags indicate the start & end of the convoy. Under no circumstances can any other vehicle enter between these two cars. If you find yourself behind such a convoy, follow them at a distance & overtake only if you can pass them all at once. Do not abort the maneuver between 2 of such vehicles.

Privacy Concerns

If you need to go somewhere alone without cover, it’s almost impossible. For example, going for a date becomes a pain. I know of a guy who gave some excuse about visiting his friend, while he was going out with his girlfriend. His father did not allow him out without security but he was adamant that day. So they (his father & PSO) agreed. He left in a joyful mood, having no one to report about his date. But as soon as his car left the building, a black Skoda silently followed him at a distance, its occupants being 3 armed guards and a skilled driver. Yes, this is the kind of privacy issues Z+ cover brings with it. Unless you belong to the Federalnaya Sluzhba Kontrrazvedki, you won’t spot or lose the tail.

In-House Protection

In-house protection is usually accompanied by layers of additional security elements depending on the threat perception. This is paid for and maintained personally. A car at the front gate is in full view of a camera atop the wall. The visitor will usually press a button on the intercom & will talk to a guard in a cabin just within the gate, who will check with the security office inside the building. If the visit is planned, the guard will then emerge via a side gate to check identification papers. If these are in order, he will retire to his cabin and press a button. The gates will open and the car will go forward to the gravel forecourt where more guards will be waiting. Since this treatment is meted out to each & everyone, it has some privacy concerns. I know at least two people who were thoroughly offended when searched by the guards.

UPDATE: A lot of people asked me via messages to elaborate a bit on in-house protection. Well, I cannot be any more detailed than I already have. But I can state some common security measures that are usually used in VVIP houses. Please keep in mind that this varies from person to person.

  • Some houses have dogs behind chain-link fences. There are two teams, and each responds only to one dog handler. The handlers work alternate nights. After dark (usually 2200 hrs), gates in the fencing are opened and the dogs have the run of the whole estate. Thereafter the guard stays inside his cabin, and in the event of a late visitor he contacts the handler to call off the dogs.
  • All the locks are electromagnetic, and access is strictly monitored. Meaning that, if a specific door is opened via a card, the security guard monitoring the cameras checks manually if the person is authorized to open it. Eg. the study is usually closed to everybody except the immediate family members. No cleaners, no maid, no nothing.
  • Some houses have a electronically controlled spikes mounted after the main gate & before the house entrance. Once a vehicle enters the roller gates, the gates close automatically. Here the guards will check the vehicle for threats etc. When they are convinced, the spikes strip will be withdrawn. Then & only then can the vehicle proceed forward.


The men & the equipment

  • The NSG guards use the Heckler & Koch MP5 Sub-machine gun. It can empty its 30 round magazine in a couple of seconds, but the firing is limited to two shot bursts, with one repeat. Anyone stopping those four rounds will start feeling unwell very fast. Such economy also allows for taking the perpetrators into custody (after treatment) for interrogation. Some specific teams(or team members) use the SG 550/551 assault rifle. This horror fires 650 rounds per minute and each round is a 5.56-mm slug, a single one of which will pull a human body apart. So intense is the fire of this gun that if used in a closed room for 3 seconds nothing much bigger than a dormouse will be left alive. And the mouse will die of shock. A Glock 17 handgun is used as a backup weapon and is usually holstered on the hip.
  • Cars used are generally NIJ level III or IV. If the government doesn’t have such a car available, the protectee’s private car is often converted to a armoured one.

The security of the President of India is provided by ‘The Presidents Body  Guard’, which is an elite house hold cavalry regiment of the Indian  Army. It is senior-most in the order of precedence of the units of the  Indian Army. The regiment is the successor of the Governor Generals Body Guard regiment of the British Raj. President is also under the protection of SPG as well as PBG.

The sacking of Mr. K Durga Prasad from  the post of chief of the Special Protection Group (SPG) is suspected to  be linked with the filing of a right to information (RTI) application on  his security rights by Mr. Narendra Modi’s wife Mrs. Jashodaben.

Last two years witnesses two  politicians under Z+ security convicted for graft charges. Mr. Lalu prasad Yadav denied Z+ security in jail by the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) court. Other Z+ category security individual being convicted is former Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Miss. J.Jayalalithaa.

z Plus Security

There is NO Classified Information in this answer.

If you read the answer once again, you will realize that the measures that I have mentioned are quite commonly known. There is nothing new or classified in the answer. It’s just that you have failed to noticed them. Allow me to demonstrate with some examples.

In-House Protection: Again, as I said these are personal security elements added on one’s own expense & hence vary from person to person. A lot of ideas such as the one mentioned can be found on the internet as well as Youtube.

Equipment: The information about the equipment used by NSG is available on the internet and elsewhere. Cars Used: Check this link out. It contains detailed info about this. security cars 


The Complete Wiring Diagram Of The Human Brain

In truth we probably know more about the universe beyond our Earth than about that which lies between our ears. Skeptical? Maybe Jeff Lichtman could convince you otherwise. He is one of the world’s leading researchers in neurobiology and a professor at Harvard.

The entire network of connection on the neurons of the human brain is called the “connectome” by scientists. When Lichtman decided to map a wiring diagram of the human brain as it dramatically changed in developing babies using different colours, he found that there aren’t enough colors to show all of the wires in the cerebral cortex.


wiring diagram of human brain

wiring diagram of human brain

To map out the brain’s wiring diagram, we would need to map out the connectome. But such has not been accomplished at the cellular or macro level, although the latter is much better off than the former.

“In a cubic millimeter of brain there is about two terabytes of image data,” Lichtman says. “I think the original Google Maps was on the range of several terabytes – that was for the whole planet.” A human brain has something on the order of a million cubic millimeters, which means you’d need around two million terabytes to store a map of its wires.

wiring diagram of human brain

wiring diagram of human brain

Lichtman noticed well at the start of his quest that there weren’t any apparent visible abnormalities in the brains of patients suffering from schizophrenia, autism or bipolar disorder. “After a while I realized that the reason there aren’t abnormalities is not that there really aren’t any, but because no one’s ever actually looked at the brain at the level of resolution they’d have to look to see these abnormalities,” Lichtman says.

“People will take a single section through a piece of brain and show a synapse, but the brain works by virtue of these connections that allow one nerve cell to talk to many other nerve cells, sort of like a Twitter account, and each nerve cell is also the recipient of a network of information from thousands of other nerve cells.” he further explains.

Only one animal’s full connectome has been constructed till date and that is the roundworm C. elegans, which has a mere 302 neurons and serves as the model for research and data sharing in the field. Scientists are now focusing to create a complete map of a mouse’s brain as they are easily accessible and used in a lot of studies.

Lichtman and 20 of his colleagues went on to show the latest new imaging technology earlier this year. Electron microscopy, which goes down to nanoscale resolutions, for brain imaging was used to map out a tiny slice of an adult mouse’s neocortex. This could help us see the difference in brains of healthy mice and those that have an equivalent of a human autism gene for the rare neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome.

Solving this mystery of the human brain might end up changing the way we treat people, it might shake our religious and philosophical beliefs to the core. Lichtman warns, “virtually all behavior can begin to be judged on the machine that’s causing that behavior. Criminality becomes just an expected behavior given the starting condition of that particular brain.”

The Human Connectome Project, which is an international effort to map the connectomes of 1,000 people on a macro scale found that n a sample of 460 people aged between 22 and 35, people with more education, better physical endurance, above-average memory, and other “positive” traits seem to have more strongly-connected brains than people with “negative” traits such as smoking, aggressive behavior, or a history of drug use. It is not certain whether one things can be the cause of the other, but one day this could greatly help in deciphering the effects of drugs on the brain in detail.

“As long as we’re seeing things we’ve never seen before, as long as we’re discovering things that look different from what we expected, we should keep doing it,” he says. “Obviously, because it’s adding insight to things that were mysterious.”

“Once you understand something well enough that there’s nothing to learn and everything is the same, then yeah, maybe it’s time to stop. But we’re far, far from there.”

Microsoft Lumia Upgrade to Windows 10 mobile


At first glance of the dinky Lumia screen, Windows 10 (or at least, the pre-release developer version) doesn’t seem a massive departure from Windows Phone 8.1. The Live Tiles interface is still present and still as usable as ever, with your apps tray just a quick swipe away and the Action Centre still hiding up top. However, we dug a little deeper and found a few nifty little changes.

So far the updates aren’t revolutionary and there’s clearly a little work still to be done before full release – for instance, messaging is missing lots of core features, including search, drafts and a spam filter. But we still love the following tweaks, which promise some great things for Microsoft’s platform when it’s finally released on July 29th.

1. A settings menu that doesn’t make you want to kill yourself

Microsoft has generally tidied up the Windows interface and made things easier to find, and we quite like some of the little tweaks – for instance, your recently installed apps now being showcased at the top of the apps menu. However, it’s the new-look settings menu that we really bloody love.

In Windows Phone 8, the settings menu was just one long, jumbled, confusing-as-Justin-Bieber’s-popularity list. Every time we tried searching for something, we inevitably ended up scrolling through the damn thing for about ten minutes before we either finally found what we needed, or just hurled the damn phone against a wall.

Now, things are broken down into handy segments, cutting down on general frustration. The new arrangement isn’t perfect by any means, with the likes of maps and camera options buried away in system settings for some reason, but we’re sure these little niggles will be sorted for the full retail version and everything will find its logical place.

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10


2. Improved Action Center

Windows Phone was late to the notification tab party, eventually introducing the Action Center so users could see in one go everything that demanded their attention. Just swipe your finger down from the top of the screen and thar she blows.

The old Action Center sported just four shortcut buttons: Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Camera and Screen Brightness. However, Windows 10 boasts a new ‘expand’ feature, which drops down two more rows of shortcuts. So now you can quickly activate flight mode, switch off the annoying screen rotation, toggle GPS, access your security options and more.

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10



Notifications have also been improved, so for instance you can now reply directly to messages through the Action Center. Just tap on the message and a box will pop up, ready for you to type out a reply. Your phone’s notifications should also automatically disappear if you tend to them on a Windows 10 PC, although we haven’t had the chance to test that feature out.

Of course, the new Action Center still isn’t ideal. For a start, you can’t customise those extra shortcuts, so you’re stuck with whatever Microsoft gives you, which is a mixed bunch at best. You also now need to expand the shortcuts tab to get the ‘All Settings’ option, which we find ourselves using quite often. But again, this might all change before the final release. At least, we hope it does.

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Keyboard nipple

Remember those little nubbin nipple things you used to get in the middle of laptop keyboards, for shifting the cursor around on-screen? Well, Microsoft has pushed a virtual one onto the Windows 10 keyboard and it works pretty well for repositioning the cursor in a message without jabbing frustratedly at the dinky display.


Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

5. R.I.P IE, say hi to Edge

The Windows 10 preview unfortunately sticks with Internet Explorer for web browsing, but the creaky IE is going to be replaced in the full Windows 10 by Microsoft Edge. Edge is a whole new minimalist browser with deep Cortana integration and a modern design, and we can’t wait to have a play come the final Windows 10 launch.

We’ve got high hopes for a smooth and effort-free browser which can quickly find you the exact content you need, based on your browsing habits and general phone use (which is where Cortana comes in). Whether we’ll be satisfied come launch day is another matter.


Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10


Don’t expect revolution with Windows 10 for phones, at least not in this early guise. The changes are mostly little tweaks that need improving to be truly useful, although we’re still hopeful that great things can be achieved come the full roll-out on July 29th.

For a start, the fresh new Photos app boasts smart integration between device and cloud, something we’d love to see extended to other apps. And the new Action Centre could be a winner with a few more changes here and there.

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

A tidy photo album – and a step towards better integration?

Photo management and editing has also been improved, so it’s easier to find the shot you’re after and then spruce it up before sharing.

Enter the Photos app and you’ll see that your shots are now organised by date, with the same tiled presentation. Microsoft is working on a new Albums feature which will allow you to group your shots by theme and quickly share with mates, which should be a handy and more private alternative to the likes of Facebook. You’ll also simply be able to arrange your photos into different folders, if you’re obsessively organised.

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

Microsoft Lumia mobile phone upgraded to Windows 10

BOSS (Bharat Operating System) Linux OS of Indian Government

BOSS  (Bharat Operating System) Operating System of Indian Government

BOSS Indian Operating System

BOSS Indian Operating System

Following the trend of ‘Make In India’, another step has been taken towards digitization of India.

In this bold move, the government in all set to resurrect their own operating system which is named Bharat Operating System Solutions or BOSS.
This OS, which was initially developed in 2007 by National Resource Centre for Free/Open Source Software (NRCFOSS) of India, is a free and open source operating system. The latest version of BOSS was released in 2013, after that it is said to have undergone many changes to fit the process.

BOSS  (Bharat Operating System) Operating System of Indian Government

BOSS (Bharat Operating System) Operating System of Indian Government

According to a report by DNA, it has been launched to overcome the vulnerabilities that exist in government cyberspace which lead to frequent hacking attempts by Chinese hackers and Indian group of hackers.
Government officials have reported that the system will be unveiled and discussed in an internal meeting in union home ministry during this week. The latest version of BOSS, which has been tweaked by C-DAC (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing) has passed all tests of attacks during the trial period.



The OS is available in 18 languages including regional languages such as Assamese, Malayalam, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati and many others.

It is actually a “LBS certified” Linux distribution, which means that the software has been certified by the Linux Foundation for compliance with the Linux Standard Base standard.
It’s being claimed that fresh codes have been written for this OS, and is being given to department of electronics and information technology (DEITY) to make it foolproof and ready to use for the ministry.

In future, the government plans to collaborate with industry giants to develop it further to create an open source OS with hardware and network systems that are BOSS friendly.

The reports leaked by Edward Snowden had brought to light the vulnerabilities of most countries’ cyberspace.
It also showed that India was the most scrutinized nation by the US intelligence agencies. However, a successful implementation may safeguard our cyberspace from unethical hacking attacks in the future.

We really hope it becomes a reality and we get to switch from ‘Hey Cortana’ to ‘Yess Boss’ (or something less cheeky probably).

Download BOSS Operating System Here


First human head transplant might happen in only two years

It is really unbelievable; this Italian surgeon will perform a head transplant on a foreign body. This will be the first operation of its kind. The controversial surgeon Sergio Canavero has announced to the media campaigns that he will be ready to perform it in 2016.

It is really unbelievable; this Italian surgeon will perform a head transplant on a foreign body. This will be the first operation of its kind. The controversial surgeon Sergio Canavero has announced to the media campaigns that he will be ready to perform it in 2016.


Valery Spiridonov, a computer programmer, whose brain is intact, agrees to be the guinea pig. He suffers from the Werdnig-Hoffman disease (spinal muscular atrophy), he knows that with this incurable genetic disease he has only little time to live. So after a few exchanges on Skype with doctor Sergio Canavero, and because he has nothing to lose, he accepted to transplant his head on a healthy body. But they still have to find the body of a donor whose brain is dead


The head is placed on the body of the “donor” through special glue based on polyethylene glycol that Canavero has developed. After the transplant, Spiridonov should then be kept a month in coma so they can immobilize the neck muscles while electrodes assist in the regeneration of nerve connections and the fusion of spinal cords.

If the transplant is successful, he will be able to move, speak with his own voice and feel his own face. Physiotherapy will allow him to get up after a year. The operation, which will last probably 36 hours, its cost is estimated to be around 10 million.

head tranplant

head tranplant

How to get best webhosting

Many people know how to drive a car, but have little or no knowledge about how the car actually works. So, too, are many people familiar with how to view and navigate web pages, but have limited knowledge of how those web pages do what they do. Here we will answer the question: “What is a web server?”


At the most basic level, a web server is simply a computer program that dispenses web pages as they are requested. The machine the program runs on is usually also called a server, and the two references are interchangeable in everyday conversation. When someone sits down at a computer and enters an address into an internet browser like Internet Explorer or Firefox, the browser sends a request off into the internet asking to view the web page found at that address. The web server is the program or machine that responds to that request, and delivers the content of the page back to the user.

This can be done because every computer or device that connects to the internet has a uniquely identifying number, called an Internet Protocol address, or IP address for short. This address is what allows computers to find one another and communicate across the network. In brief, the process works as follows.

Every web page on the internet also has a unique address, called a Uniform Resource Locator, or URL. Something like “” is an example of a typical URL. When a user types that URL into a web browser, the machine the browser is running on sends a request to the IP address of the machine running the web server for that page, requesting that all the content found there be sent back. Once the web server receives that request, it sends the page content back to the IP address of the computer asking for it. The web browser then translates that content into all of the text, pictures, links, videos, etc. that so many web pages contain.

Web servers can sometimes be slowed down by things like inadequate resources on the machine they run on, or an overwhelming number of requests being received in too short a time, but generally the whole process happens so quickly it’s hardly even noticeable as users navigate from page to page. The data being transferred back and forth during these exchanges must conform to a specific protocol, called Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), to ensure that all web pages and servers communicate with one another efficiently and without error.

The most common web server software today, that is, the program that actually does the receiving and answering of page requests, is Apache. This open-source software handles more than half of all websites in existence today – many developers of web-based applications and technologies use Apache as their default environment when designing new products. The second most common is Internet Information Services (IIS), released by Microsoft, which accounts for nearly 25% of all websites, leaving various other smaller applications to compete for the remaining niche.

Though web servers can also handle data requests for other protocols not covered here, like SMTP for email, or FTP for file transfer and storage, it is their ability to respond to web page requests that is the underlying force keeping the entire world wide web up and running.


A Web server is a program that, using the client/server model and the World Wide Web’s Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP ), serves the files that form Web pages to Web users (whose computers contain HTTP clients that forward their requests). Every computer on the Internet that contains a Web site must have a Web server program. Two leading Web servers are Apache , the most widely-installed Web server, and Microsoft’s Internet Information Server ( IIS ). Other Web servers include Novell’s Web Server for users of its NetWare operating system and IBM’s family of Lotus Domino servers, primarily for IBM’s OS/390 and AS/400 customers.

The primary function of a web server is to store, process and deliver web pages to clients. The communication between client and server takes place using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Pages delivered are most frequently HTML documents, which may include images, style sheets and scripts in addition to text content.

A user agent, commonly a web browser or web crawler, initiates communication by making a request for a specific resource using HTTP and the server responds with the content of that resource or an error message if unable to do so. The resource is typically a real file on the server’s secondary storage, but this is not necessarily the case and depends on how the web server is implemented.

Different types of Web Servers

Apache web server – the HTTP web server
apache-web-server-logoThe free Apache web serverFree and the most popular web server in the world developed by the Apache Software Foundation. Apache web server is an open source software and can be installed and made to work on almost all operating systems including Linux, Unix, Windows, FreeBSD, Mac OS X and more. About 60% of the web server machines run the Apache web server.


Apache Tomcat

apache-tomcatApache Tomcat logoThe Apache Tomcat has been developed to support servlets and JSP scripts. Though it can serve as a standalone server, Tomcat is generally used along with the popular Apache HTTP web server or any other web server. Apache Tomcat is free and open source and can run on different operating systems like Linux, Unix, Windows, Mac OS X, Free BSD.


Microsoft’s Internet Information Services (IIS) Windows Server

iis-windows-web-serverIIS Windows Web Server from MicrosoftIIS Windows Web Server has been developed by the software giant, Microsoft. It offers higher levels of performance and security than its predecessors. It also comes with a good support from the company and is the second most popular server on the web.


Nginx web server

nginx-web-server-logoNginx web serverFree open source popular web server including IMAP/POP3 proxy server. Hosting about 7.5% of all domains worldwide, Nginx is known for its high performance, stability, simple configuration and low resource usage. This web server doesn’t use threads to handle requests rather a much more scalable event-driven architecture which uses small and predictable amounts of memory under load.


lighttpd-logolighttpd web server logolighttpd, pronounced “lighty” (don’t ask me why), is a free web server distributed with the FreeBSD operating system. This open source web server is fast, secure and consumes much less CPU power. Lighttpd can also run on Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and Solaris operating systems.



jigsaw-w3c-web-serverW3C web server – JigsawJigsaw (W3C’s Server) comes from the World Wide Web Consortium. It is open source and free and can run on various platforms like Linux, Unix, Windows, Mac OS X Free BSD etc. Jigsaw has been written in Java and can run CGI scripts and PHP programs.



klone-logoKlone web serverKlone, from KoanLogic Srl, includes a web server and an SDK for creating static and dynamic web sites. It is a web application development framework especially for embedded systems and appliances. No additional components are required when using Klone; thus, one can do away with an HTTP/S server or the active pages engine (PHP, Perl, ASP).


Abyss web server

abyss-web-serverAbyss web server from ApreliumAbyss compact web server runs on all popular platforms – Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and FreeBSD. The personal edition is (X1) 100% free while the professional Abyss Web Server X2 has a small price tag of $60. Supports HTTP/1.1, secure connections, CGI/FastCGI, custom error pages, password protection and much more. The server also has an automatic antihacking system and a multiligual remote web management interface.

Oracle Web Tier

oracle-web-tierOracle Web TierIncludes two web server options with reverse proxy and caching solutions that lead to quick serving of web pages and easy handling of even the most demanding http traffic. The iPlanet Web Server, for example, is a high-performance server with enhanced security and mutithreaded architechture that scales well on modern 64-bit multiprocessors.


X5 (Xitami) web server

x5-logoX5 logo – Xitami from iMatix CorporationThe cross-platform X5 from iMatrix Corporation is the latest generation web server using the company’s own multithreading technology (Base2) that makes it scalable to multi cores. As per the iMatrix, X5 can handle thousands of connections without difficulty and thus is useful for long polling in which connections from clients remain open for extended durations.

Zeus web server

zeus-web-server-logoZeus web serverThe Zeus web server runs on Linux and Free BSD operating systems among others. It has been developed by Zeus technology Ltd. And is known for its speed, reliability, security and flexibility. The web server is used on some of the busiest web sites of the world including Ebay. Zeus web server is not free and costs more than a thousand pounds.

What is HTTP/2 or HTTP2.0

HTTP/2 (originally named HTTP/2.0) is the second major version of the HTTP network protocol used by the World Wide Web. It is based on SPDY.[1] HTTP/2 is being developed by the Hypertext Transfer Protocol working group (httpbis, where bis means “repeat” or “twice”) of the Internet Engineering Task Force. HTTP/2 would be the first new version of HTTP since HTTP 1.1, which was standardized in RFC 2616 in 1999. The Working Group presented HTTP/2 to IESG for consideration as a Proposed Standard in December 2014, and IESG approved it to publish as Proposed Standard on Feb 17, 2015.


The standardization effort came as an answer to SPDY, an HTTP-compatible protocol developed by Google and supported in Chrome, Opera, Firefox, Internet Explorer 11, Safari, and Amazon Silk browsers.

HTTP/2 is done

well almost! There are still some minor processes to go through before they are published as official RFCs but the IESG has formally approved the HTTP/2 and HPACK specifications! So clearly, it’s safe to say that HTTP/2 is done! And given how vital the HTTP protocol is in today’s world, this is really important news.

The fact that HTTP/2 is binary based (Vs. HTTP 1.x being text based) removes lot of technical barriers that (text-based) HTTP 1.x had and allows the introduction of new capabilities. Those new capabilities (e.g. stream multiplexing over a single TCP connection, stream prioritization, server-push, etc.) are more than welcome as they will reduce the overall Web latency. HTTP/2 will also help to get rid of the various “hacks” (e.g. file concatenation, domain sharding) that were put in place to work-around the HTTP 1.x limitations (e.g. Head-of-Line blocking).


HTTP/2 maintains a high-level compatibility with HTTP 1.x and preserve a lot of its predecessors concepts (e.g. URI, headers, etc.). So from a Java EE developer point of view, the HTTP/2 impact will be relatively minimal and only a few HTTP/2 aspects will be exposed to the developer through the Servlet API (Server-Push & Stream Prioritization). This work is conducted right now in the Servlet 4 (JSR 369) Experts Group (see EG discussions here).

And even if you are not a Web-tier developer, it is important to understand HTTP/2 and what it brings. For that, you are strongly encouraged to watch the session that Ed Burns and Shing wai Chan (Servlet 4 Specification Leads) gave during last JavaOne on HTTP/2 and the Servlet 4 plans (slides here).

HTTP/2 is a replacement for how HTTP is expressed “on the wire.” It is not a ground-up rewrite of the protocol; HTTP methods, status codes and semantics are the same, and it should be possible to use the same APIs as HTTP/1.x (possibly with some small additions) to represent the protocol.

The focus of the protocol is on performance; specifically, end-user perceived latency, network and server resource usage. One major goal is to allow the use of a single connection from browsers to a Web site.

The basis of the work was SPDY, but HTTP/2 has evolved to take the community’s input into account, incorporating several improvements in the process.



HTTP/2 is nearly done standardization; it has been approved by the IESG, and is in the RFC Editor’s publication queue.


HTTP/2 is comprised of two specifications:


We track known implementations of HTTP/2 on our wiki.